94, 2015, pp. One long-term effect on animals is the fact that most birds and reptiles exposed to an oil slick have the side effect of producing thinner egg shells. "Status of intertidal infaunal communities following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska." It was dubbed as the worst oil spill ever in the Philippines. 241-250, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.02.002. Even when marine mammals escape the immediate effects, an oil spill can contaminate their food supply. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spill has direct and indirect effects on human beings and environment among which are the following:Problem for Ecosystem: Oil spill creates problem for the ecosystem most especially aquatic beings. This leaves the birds susceptible to hypothermia or overheating. Oil spills have negative impacts on the residents of the affected areas. Even when lethal impacts are not observed, oil can make fish and shellfish unsafe for humans to eat. The damage is hard to measure and contain, since it can effect complex ecosystems and spread if introduced to underground water. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill constituted an ecosystem-level injury in the northern Gulf of Mexico. “Oil and Sea Turtles.” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. An oil spill can have a major impact on the economy in coastal areas. When precious crude oil or refined petroleum is lost, it effects the amount of petroleum and gas available for use. When exposed to oil, adult fish may experience reduced growth, enlarged livers, changes in heart and respiration rates, fin erosion, and reproduction impairment. Weeks after the event, and while it was still in progress, the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill was being discussed as a disaster with far reaching consequences sufficient to impact global economies, marketplaces and policies. Abstract: The Guimaras oil spill was a massive oil spill at the Guimaras Strait, the Philippines. Oil spill can be of two different categories – the land spillage and the aquatic spillage – but they all have a negative impact on both the environment and the society in general. The oil spill will likely disturb the Arctic food chain for decades, perhaps forever. Human Health. Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. The overall cost and challenge of cleaning up an oil spill is enormous. These experts are trained on how to clean oil from animals, rehabilitate them, and return them to the environment. We can prevent oil spillage by enforcing environmental laws and regulations, providing adequate training for oil handlers, carrying out routine checks on oil equipment, and carrying out proper maintenance on vessels and storage tanks. Beaches, Marshlands, and Fragile Aquatic Ecosystems. People who clean up the spill are more at risk. 135, 2018, pp. "Crude Oil and Dispersant Cause Acute Clinicopathological Abnormalities in Hatchling Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta Caretta)." Much oil spread at 1100-1300m depth, contaminating and affecting deepwater habitats. The effects of an oil spill will depend on a variety of factors including, the quantity and type of oil spilled, and how it interacts with the marine environment. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: How Much Oil Remains? How spilled oil affects near-surface creatures depends on when and where the oil spills—those creatures might or might not even be in the area at the location and time of a spill. It spreads out and is pushed across the water by wind and currents. The effects of oil pollution are devastating and well documented. Mathewson, Paul D., et al. “Five Years & Counting: Gulf Wildlife in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Disaster.” National Wildlife Federation. Prevailing weather conditions will also influence the oil’s physical characteristics and its behaviour. Short, Jeffrey W., et al. , Has Prince William Sound Recovered From the Spill? New York Times, July 25. Fish eggs and larvae can be especially sensitive to lethal and sublethal impacts. The effect of oil pollution is disastrous, especially on the aquatic flora and fauna. Beaches, Marshlands, and Fragile Aquatic Ecosystems, Julie Dermansky / Contributor / Getty Images, National Parks in Florida: Beaches, Mangrove Swamps, Sea Turtles, Geography of the World's Largest Oil Spills, Lakeview Gusher of 1910 Bigger, Not Worse, Than BP Oil Spill, Facts About Marine Life in the Gulf of Mexico, The Top 10 Wildlife Conservation Organizations, The Environmental Impacts of Hurricane Katrina, Understanding Oil Spills And Oil Spill Response, Water Marks: Louisiana Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration News, Slightly Weathered Exxon Valdez Oil Persists in Gulf of Alaska Beach Sediments after 16 Years, Five Years & Counting: Gulf Wildlife in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Disaster, Experimental and Modeled Thermoregulatory Costs of Repeated Sublethal Oil Exposure in the Double-Crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax Auritus, Effects of Petroleum Exposure on Birds: A Review, Handbook of Oil Spill Science and Technology (First Edition). 2 Oil Spill Effects on Fisheries. 889-916, doi:10.1080/10807039.2013.828513. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. 1. Environmental Science & Technology, vol. This can affect organisms both from internal exposure to oil through ing… "Slightly Weathered Exxon Valdez Oil Persists in Gulf of Alaska Beach Sediments after 16 Years." Spill’s Effects Underwater. Our understanding of oil toxicity has expanded by studying the effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Oil toxicity: Oil consists of many different toxic compounds. If a fish consumes a small amount of oil, it can survive, but may pass on that oil to another animal far away from the site, causing its death. In 2010, for example, after the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, more than 5,000 … Preventing oil spills and using environmentally-friendly oil spill cleaners, rather than other toxic products will help a great deal in minimizing the impact of an oil spill. During and after an oil spill, animals can suffer detrimental effects on their fur and feathers. 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