To the south was the land of Dilmun, a trading state associated with the land of the dead and the place of creation. The following is a list of some modern and ancient Semitic-speaking peoples and nations: Central Semitic. The Amorites (Sumerian MAR.TU) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people [1] from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city-states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city. Speakers of East Semitic include the people of the Akkadian Empire, Assyria and Babylonia. An ethno-linguistic grouping of Semitic language-speaking peoples, including Arabs, Jews, and Assyrians. [1][2][3] The earliest records of Semitic languages are from 30th century BC Mesopotamia. The Western Aramaic of the Arameans themselves is now almost extinct, with only a few thousand speakers extant in and around Ma’loula in western Syria. Phoenician became one of the most widely used writing systems, spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world and beyond, where it evolved and was assimilated by many other cultures. The Greek alphabet (and by extension, its descendants such as the Latin, Cyrillic and Coptic alphabets), was a direct successor of Phoenician, though certain letter values were changed to represent vowels. The King of Assyria Arik-den-ili (reigned c. 1307–1296 BC), consolidated Assyrian power in the Levant, he defeated and conquered ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of the so-called Ahlamu group. Some content is licensed under a Creative Commons license, and other content is completely copyright-protected. Our logo, banner, and trademark are registered and fully copyright protected (not subject to Creative Commons). Ammonite speakers of Ammon; Amorites – 20th century BC; Arabs; Ancient North Arabian-speaking bedouins; Arameans – 16th to 8th … Ugaritic was a West Semitic language, fairly closely related to, and part of the same general language family as the tongues of the Amorites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Moabites, Edomites, Ammonites, Amalekites and Israelites. Ethiopian Semitic languages are first attested by the ninth century BC, with the earliest proto-Ge'ez inscriptions of the kingdom of .mw-parser-output span.smallcaps{font-variant:small-caps}.mw-parser-output span.smallcaps-smaller{font-size:85%}Dʿmt using the South Arabian alphabet.[19]. Semitic languages, languages that form a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. In contrast, some recent genetic studies found that analysis of the DNA of Semitic-speaking peoples suggests that they have some common ancestry. Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples refers to numerous groups of ancient peoples who both inhabited, and in some cases still inhabit, the Near East and parts of Anatolia and spoke the Semitic languages. Semitic languages § Semitic-speaking peoples, "Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of Semitic languages identified an Early Bronze Age origin of Semitic in the Near East", "Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of Semitic languages identifies an Early Bronze Age origin of Semitic in the Near East", "The Philistines and Other "Sea Peoples" in Text and Archaeology", The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. The Philistines are conjectured to have been one of the Sea Peoples,[14][15] who seem to have arrived in southern Canaan sometime in the 12th century BC. After this, Arabic gradually replaced Aramaic as a part of a steady process of Arabization and Islamification, accompanied by the influx of a large number of Muslim Arabs from the Arabian peninsula, although the Syriac language, script and literature continued to exert influence upon Arabic into the Middle Ages. “The Origins of Afroasiatic”. Tauris. Edited by Matthew A. McIntoshJournalist and HistorianBrewminate Editor-in-Chief. "The Ancient South Arabian Minuscule Inscriptions on Wood: A New Genre of Pre-Islamic Epigraphy". [6], In one interpretation,[citation needed] Proto-Semitic itself is assumed to have reached the Arabian Peninsula[citation needed] by approximately the 4th millennium BC, from which Semitic daughter languages continued to spread outwards. To the east were the Elamites, a rival people with whom the Sumerians were frequently at war. Phoenician colonies (such as Carthage) spread their Canaanite language throughout much of the Mediterranean, while its close relative, Hebrew, became the vehicle of a religious literature, the Torah and Tanakh, which would have global ramifications. In honor of Harold Crane Fleming. A Canaanite group known as the Phoenicians came to dominate the coasts of Syria, Lebanon and south west Turkey from the 13th century BC, founding city states such as Tyre, Sidon, Byblos Simyra, Arwad, Berytus (Beirut), Antioch and Aradus, eventually spreading their influence throughout the Mediterranean, including building colonies in Malta, Sicily, the Iberian Peninsula and the coasts of North Africa, founding the major city state of Carthage (in modern Tunisia) in the 9th century BC. The last Akkadian inscriptions date from the late first century AD, and cuneiform script in the second century AD, both in Mesopotamia.[11]. [20] Later still, written evidence of Old South Arabian and Ge’ez (both related to but in reality separate languages from Arabic) offer the first written attestations of South Semitic languages in the 8th century BC in Sheba, Ubar and Magan (modern Oman and Yemen). After the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (between 615 and 599 BC) and the succeeding short lived Neo-Babylonian Empire (615–539 BC) the Semitic speaking peoples lost control of the Near East to the Persian Achaemenid Empire (539–332 BC). [18] In ancient Egypt, the natives were speakers of a non-Semitic but related Afroasiatic tongue, the Egyptian language. Aramaic was also the language of the Aramean state of Palmyra and the short lived Palmyrene Empire. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; For Contemporary Semitic-speaking peoples, see, For the obsolete racial and ethnic concept, see. [citation needed] The Semitic family is a member of the larger Afroasiatic family, all of whose other five or more branches have their origin in North Africa or the Maghreb. Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples were West Asian people who lived throughout the Ancient Near East, including the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Arabian peninsula, and the Horn of Africa from the third millennium BCE until the end of antiquity. The Old Assyrian Empire, Babylonian Empire and in particular the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC), facilitated the use of Akkadian as a lingua franca in many regions outside its homeland. According to Christy G. Turner II, there is an archaeological and physical anthropological reason for a relation between the modern Semitic-speaking populations of the Levant and the Natufian culture. Pharaonic-styled mural painting in Tal Saka archaeological site Blench even wonders whether the highly divergent Gurage languages indicate an origin in Ethiopia (with the rest of Ethiopic Semitic a later back migration). [7] By the mid-third millennium BC,[10] many states and cities in Mesopotamia had come to be ruled or dominated by Akkadian-speaking Semites, including Assyria, Eshnunna, the Akkadian Empire, Kish, Isin, Ur, Uruk, Adab, Nippur, Ekallatum, Nuzi, Akshak, Eridu and Larsa. Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples or Proto-Semitic people were Western Asian people who lived throughout the ancient Near East, including the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Horn of Africa from the third millennium BC until the end of antiquity. And Canaan as the northernmost branch of Afroasiatic Modern South Arabian languages and Ethiopian Semitic languages of nomadic Arameans... Semitic Arameans and Suteans begin around this time, followed by Chaldeans in the 12th century.! 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